Get Rid of Your Mummy Bag on the Appalachian Trail in 2017

“Every ounce of sleeping bag crushed flat under us as we sleep is an ounce of sleeping bag we’re carrying around every day for no reason.”

Scrolling through my phone yesterday, Google recommended an Appalachian Trail Thru Hiker data article put together by Appalachian Trials (now “The Trek“). Of course this sort of thru-hiker survey data is of the utmost interest to me so I naturally began to peruse the data to see what hikers are doing these days and some of the results really did surprise me.

Okay, to be fair I almost anticipated the data to reflect more silly things than I ultimately found but (both fortunately and unfortunately) I found that thru hikers in 2016 seem to be making some seemingly dumb mistakes in ways I didn’t quite anticipate.

Why You Should Get Rid of Your Mummy Bag:

appalachian-trail-thru-hiker-sleeping-bag-mistakes

Here’s some of the data from this year’s thru hiker survey on the Appalachian Trail according to TheTrek.co.

Surprisingly enough, it shows that 25.2% of hikers are now using backpacking quilts for sleeping in tents and tarps. In hammock sleep systems, about 33% of hikers are using top-quilts for insulation.

It’s crazy to me that a full 66% of hammock campers are making the mistake of carrying extra weight and taking up extra room in the pack by choosing to use a sleeping bag instead of the much more efficient top-quilt system (in this case combined with an under quilt for hammock use).

The problem with mummy bags

So what, exactly, is the mistake here? Well, let’s start by exploring how insulation works and how sleeping bags and quilts keep us warm.

At its most basic level, the majority of insulation operates by creating “dead air space” or a pocket of air which is unable to move. This immobile air is then brought up  to body temperature since it sits close to the body. Since the air can’t move, it’s then quite efficient at helping to regulate body temperature.

For notation’s sake, it’s worth mentioning that this is only one type of insulation. See this Dr Energy Saver article for a good overall primer on how insulation works and some common problems with insulation.

Some challenges of insulation on the trail are wind, water, and compression. If your insulation gets wet it will lose a large amount of its ability to insulate. If wind is allowed to blow through your insulation it will replace all that warm air with cool (or cold) atmospheric temperature air. If your insulation gets compressed, or smashed, for any reason it will then also lose its ability to trap and retain warm body temperature air.

Wind and water are obvious, but can you think of an instance on the trail when you might accidentally compress your insulation?

Maybe you fold up that puffy jacket and sit on it for an improvised sit-pad. You might notice that it doesn’t do much to keep the bum warm. That’s because you compressed it – it’s no longer able to trap air because you crushed it flat with your body weight.

On the inefficiency of sleeping bags:

Since compressed insulation does little or nothing at all to help insulate us from cold temperatures, it follows that we should aim to avoid compressing any insulation we’re using. Right?

Backpacking Quilt vs Sleeping Bag

Quilt (left) vs Mummy Bag (right)

Traditional sleeping bags surround the body like a cocoon on all sides to keep us warm while we sleep. Unfortunately, a large portion of that insulation is crushed flat every night as we sleep. If we’re side sleepers we may crush less of that insulation than back sleepers.

Every ounce of sleeping bag crushed flat under us as we sleep is an ounce of sleeping bag we’re carrying around every day for no reason.

Because that insulation doesn’t actually help keep us warm, why bother carrying it at all? How do we solve this inefficiency?

Backpacking quilts are the answer! Backpacking quilts are simply mummy bags with open backs. There is no material on the underside of a quilt – the quilt simply drapes over you and, in some cases, snaps on to your sleeping pad to surround you without placing any material underneath you. This completely removes the material that would otherwise be crushed when sleeping in a traditional bag.

why The continued use of mummy bags surprises me:

When I first started using backpacking hammocks as a shelter back in 2011 (found Hennessey Hammocks at Trail Days in Damascus, VA) it seemed that only a select few backpackers knew about hammock camping at all. Those who did, seemed to fully understand the niche pros and cons of the shelter.

Though there seems to be little objective data available, my empirical experience is that camping hammocks have gained popularity like wildfire over the last 6 years. With them has come the rise of backpacking quilts.

UGQ Zeppelin Under Quilt

Hammock under quilt by Under Ground Quilts – my favorite manufacturer.

Quilts seem to have sprouted largely from the hammock camping community where “under quilts” are used for insulation and comfort. I only became aware of the use of backpacking quilts as a result of getting to know cottage industry manufacturers in the hammock camping industry and ultralight backpacking world.

These days it’s much more common to hear people recommend the use of backpacking quilts on forums or by word of mouth. Apparently 25% of people are now using them and their use has grown 147% YoY (year over year).

Despite their weight savings when compared to same-temperature mummy bags and the fact that high quality quilts can be custom ordered to your exact specifications for less money than many name brand mummy bags at the local outfitter, mummy bags still own the majority of the market share. Why?

Better yet – according to the survey – why are 66% of hammock users still sleeping in mummy bags? This tells me that the hammock camping fad has become so popular so quickly that people are now hammock camping while thru hiking without even using properly researched equipment… By and large hammock campers rely on under quilts for insulation, they should really know better than to be sleeping in a mummy bag.

Why are mummy bags still so popular?

Mummy bags have been around for a long time and most big-name brands are making mummy bags and have models which have been popular for decades. Chances are your grandfather had a mummy bag and your dad did, too. It’s just the “thing” you “do” when you go camping.

By and large I believe the majority of hikers, backpackers, and campers in general don’t take the time to think or research their gear in great depth. Many people aren’t even aware that there are alternatives to mummy bags.

If you’ve bought all your gear at REI, then you’re probably not even aware that backpacking quilts exist or that you can order them to literally any temperature rating you would like. You may not be aware that they’re lighter than mummy bags, built by hikers for hikers, and more compressible than any other options on the market today.

I think mummy bags are still popular because the market is so saturated with them already. Most retail stores and manufacturers aren’t really looking out for consumers best interests. After all, backpacking quilts are superior to mummy bags in every way so why does the inferior product continue to exist? Most people expect to see mummy bags when they walk into an outfitter store and that’s what the box stores are happy to sell them.

Where to buy great backpacking quilts:

I’ll recommend one backpacking quilt maker above all others because I feel their balance of price to finished product weight and attention to customer needs is superior to all others. I have exclusively used Underground Quilts owned and operated by Paul McWalters for my quilts and tarps for years.

Paul makes my gear to my exact specifications every time, even when I ask for a snap or button to be left off to save weight. His company really goes the extra mile to make some great gear and I know him personally. Check out this great interview with Paul about his quilts!

I have meticulously researched and compared quilts made by other manufacturers and none of them have the price, weight, service, and product quality that I know I can expect from UGQ and Paul. Some very few may be lighter by fractional ounces, but the difference in price does not justify the weight savings in my opinion.

I have not and do not receive compensation for my opinions nor do I make money from sales of any manufacturer’s gear. They just make great quilts.

Other Quilt Manufacturers:

If you’re looking to compare quilts then check out these other makers:

Conclusion

I really can’t think of a great reason to keep mummy bags around except, perhaps, in the most harsh and extreme of cold environments such as arctic exploration. For any Appalachian Trail hike, a quilt is just fine even in winter.

With that said, it is my opinion that quilts should replace mummy bags and I sincerely hope to see 75% or more of hikers carrying quilts – not the other way around as the data currently reflects. They’re lighter and more compressible saving you energy, space, and potential injury on the trail.

Go chat with my buddy Paul at Underground Quilts and get yourself hooked up with a great new piece of gear – you’ll be glad you made the change.

Do you feel that mummy bags still have a place on the trail for most people? Leave me a comment and let’s keep the discussion going!

Happy Trails, people!

Vegetarian Backpacking Meals

Vegetarian Backpacking Meals 2017As a long time backpacking guide and vegetarian myself, I’ve found ways to eat well on the trail while working with clients who may (or may not) also be veggies. It’s actually a bit of a pain to try to bring meat on the trail, other than ultra-salty jerky and wrapped sausage sticks.

For that reason, most vegetarians will find themselves eating better meals than the majority with these few vegetarian backpacking meals:

(All of my meals are based around Freezer Bag Cooking so if you’re not familiar with this method I suggest you start by reading Sarah Kirkconnel’s brand new 2016 edition FBC book.)

 

Crunchy Beans and Rice

Possibly my all time favorite for deliciousness and simplicity. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve had an entire shelter ask me, “What is that amazing smell?” This is an easy vegetarian meal for the trail that you’ll come back to over and over again.

If you enjoy Tex-Mex or anything resembling tasty burritos and spicy rice this is the meal for you:

What you’ll need

Pre-Trail Preparation

  1. Grab that gallon Ziploc bag and toss in your cup of minute rice, taco seasoning, and dehydrated refried beans.
  2. Crush up your Fritos and toss them in a small snack sized Ziploc bag.
  3. Put the snack bag of Fritos inside the gallon bag with your other ingredients.

On-Trail preparation

  1. Pull the snack bag of Fritos out of the gallon Ziploc.
  2. Boil enough water for the beans and rice (2 cups of water if you followed my portions).
  3. Once the water is boiling, shut off the stove and pour the water into the gallon Ziploc bag.
  4. Seal bag and let it sit until the water has been fully absorbed by rice and beans. Set up camp while this happens.
  5. Stir up meal, sprinkle crushed Fritos over it, and enjoy! Eat straight from the bag for no-mess cleanup.

Creamy CousCous

Another amazing recipe that will leave you hiking through your day just to get to camp for your dinner! Completely vegetarian backpacking meal and amazingly tasty.

This one is hearty and filling so leave plenty of time to veg out (ha, no pun intended) around camp after you eat up.

What you’ll need

Pre-Trail Preparation

  1. Add couscous, milk powder, and walnuts together in the gallon Ziploc bag.
  2. Put your olive oil in a leak proof container (I bought a pack of 8oz water bottles and drank them all – replace with olive oil).
  3. Consider adding a little extra seasoning (dry buttermilk ranch seasoning) if you want before leaving home.

On-trail Preparation

  1. Boil enough water for the couscous according to the box you used of pre-mixed couscous.
  2. Add boiling water to freezer bag.
  3. Seal freezer bag, let sit while you set up camp.
  4. Stir in olive oil before eating and mix thoroughly.
  5. ENJOY!

Conclusion

Best Vegetarian Backpacking MealsIf you enjoyed these simple vegetarian backpacking meals, please consider picking up your ingredients using the links above. The small Amazon kickback helps me keep this site running so I can keep bringing the best backpacking information available to you!

If you want more great freezer bag cooking meals for backpacking just let me know in the comment section. I love freezer bag cooking backpacking meals and it’s so much fun to share the simplicity with new hikers.

Check out my list of the most calorie dense foods if you’re looking for foods that really pack a punch on the trail.

How to Get Outdoor Pro Deals

Wouldn’t it be sick to have access to brands like GoPro, K2, Patagonia, Outdoor Research, and Kelty for a steady 60% off?

That’s called a pro-deal, my friends. A lot of you reading my blog are outdoor pros or looking to become instructors, guides, naturalists and so on. Guess what!?! You can snag easy pro deals up to 60% off these brands. Wish someone had told me this when I was a county park ranger….

How to Register for Outdoor Pro Deals

There is an easy way to do this and a hard way to do this…. let’s start with easy:

Experticity.com

Sign up for hundreds of outdoor pro deals in one registration with experticity.com

Get some sick outdoor pro deals with Experticity.

Get some sick outdoor pro deals with Experticity.

This one used to be known as Promotive but I guess they’ve recently overhauled themselves. Maybe it was a merger, I’m not really hip on the happenings behind the scene. It doesn’t really matter, just go get your sick gear for dope discounts.

You can register on your own and hope for acceptance or, if your employer is cool, they’re already registered. It’s better to connect with an employer because brands usually offer deeper discounts through employers.

If your employer has an Experticity hub, simply make an account, search for your employer, link your profile to them (you may have to provide proof of employment) and BAM! Discounts.

If you’ve ever been on a NOLS course, you’re already eligible! All NOLS alum can connect with the NOLS hub on Experticity and get stick gear deals.

Get creative, ask friends, ask old employers, it’s not difficult to find a way to legitimately qualify for these badass outdoor gear deals.

Individual Brands

Many outdoor gear brands offer pro deals on a case-by-case basis. Don’t see a brand on Experticity that you want a deal with? Try checking out that company’s corporate website. Often you’ll find pro deal programs through the brand its self.

Here’s an easy example:

Patagonia’s pro deal corner of their site can be found here.

How do you become a Patagonia pro deal member? Here’s a direct quote from Patagonia’s pro deal FAQ:

The Patagonia Pro Program is a membership program for qualified pros and influencers specific to our brand. Membership is by application only and all members need to reapply/requalify annually to continue membership and access. Membership is not guaranteed and can be revoked at any time. If you are interested in applying, please visit our Apply for Membershipsection and follow the instructions.

Patagonia offers an individual pro deal!

Patagonia offers an individual pro deal!

So even if you can’t get ahold of the deals through Experticity – just go hook yourself up by convincing the brands that you’ll be a great ambassador for their gear in one way or another. Just get creative and be honest.

Here’s Mountain Hardwear’s Pro Deal page.

Maybe you need some Columbia gear on the cheap – here’s the pro deal page. Columbia has always been one of my favorite brands and snagging the gear a bit cheaper would be sick!

Outlet Stores

This one is often overlooked.

This is how I picked up a great  new pair of skiing pants, a jacket, and brand new pair of Mountain Hardwear gloves for well under $100.

Check your local shopping centers for outdoor gear outlet stores. The savvy gear shopper can snag sick gear on the cheap here.

My all time favorite? (No surprise here) The Columbia Outlet Store in Kimball Junction, Utah.

Conclusion

Hey, why pay full price when all these brands want you to rep their gear on the cheap!?

If you’re an outdoor pro, educator, guide, instructor, or anything else (media, blogger, etc) which qualifies you through these great outdoor pro deal programs – take advantage of them yesterday!

Cheers, friends and happy trails!

Best Men’s Patagonia Ski Gear 2017

Let me preface by saying that, as a reader of my blog, you know I don’t bullshit around here. If I’m calling something the “best” then it’s a piece of gear I use, trust, and rely on. As a full time ski instructor at Deer Valley Resort, I spend more than 100 days on skis every year and my cold weather gear either keeps up with me or gets donated to the second hand store.

This isn’t another Amazon affiliate review from Joe Schmoe’s website – this is the real deal. Real advice from a backpacking guide and ski instructor you can count on to cut to the chase. So let’s get to it:

Patagonia Men’s R1 Fleece Pullover

Made from polyester, this excellent winter insulation layer is perfect for several reasons.

Patagonia's R1 Pullover

Patagonia’s R1 Pullover

First, Patagonia was one of the earliest makers of “waffle” pattern polyester insulation layers in this fashion. The inner fabric of the R1 fleece line is made of raised square grids which significantly improve the insulative value of the garment.

Second, Patagonia’s style fits my slender, longer frame quite well so it’s great for any of you “athletic” fit people out there.

After years of owning and using the R1 pullover, I have yet to see any wear or degrading of materials. I’ve taken this thing on so many trips I can’t even count and I’m not sure if it’s 4 or 7 years old at this point… I do know it’s still kicking strong and I doubt I’ll need to replace it any time soon.

To top this all off, they offer it in several variations and, while I own the R1 Pullover, if I could go back and buy the “right one” I would have gone with the R1 Fleece Hoody.

Patagonia Men’s Nano Puff Jacket

This one is offered in two different flavors – synthetic or down (the down version is called a Down Sweater).

In case you’re not already aware of the difference here are the major points:

DOWN

  • More Expensive
  • Most compressible
  • Higher insulation value
  • Loses almost all insulation value when wet

SYNTHETIC

  • Less expensive
  • Slightly less compressible
  • Slightly lower insulation value
  • Loses less insulation value when wet

For mid-winter skiing there’s nothing wrong with down… I just opted for synthetic at the time because I wanted to save money and have more flexibility in using it for backpacking in the cold rainy off seasons.

Nano Puff Jacket

Nano Puff Jacket

I LOVE the Patagonia Nano Puff Jacket for its absurd warmth. The jacket is comfy, highly durable, and warmer than it should be. This jacket lets absolutely no wind through (due to nylon outer and inner shells). Paired with a moderate helping of synthetic insulation this jacket will keep you roasting!

If money weren’t an obstacle and I could snag another jacket, I would grab the Patagonia Men’s Down Sweater Jacket and give it a try. Though I must say, the Patagonia Men’s Nano Puff Hoody would be great for the added hood option.

Final Notes

If I had unlimited cash, I would most definitely try many other Patagonia ski apparel products. Even with access to great industry deals, I have to choose when and where to buy their often pricey gear.

At the right price, and after carefully considering what apparel I need, however, Patagonia gear has never let me down.

Maybe some day I’ll get the chance to test some of their other awesome looking goodies!

I usually use the R1 and Nano Puff with a hard shell jacket (I own several from various brands) as my full layering system for mid winter personal skiing and have never had a problem with this set up. It’s versatile, usually way too warm, and highly adaptable.

Ethical Leave No Trace Paddling Tips

Ethical Paddling with Leave No Trace Principals

If you’ve spent time on a busy section of river corridor, then you’ve pulled up on a seemingly pristine stretch of bank overhung by weeping branches and stretched your legs as you pull on those nice sandals only to find a big old pile of unburied human poop.

Okay, maybe it was just the leftover remnants of an improvised fire ring left from the night before by some frat boys out for a good time.

Either way, as outdoor leaders and educators, it’s our job to uphold ethical backcountry travel guidelines and to make sure we teach these to our students and our friends.

Not familiar with LNT? Start here with the 7 LNT Principles.

Here’s the three most important LNT Principles as I feel they pertain to paddling:

Dispose of Waste Properly

Nothing gets my paddling hackles up so much as finding poor stewardship of our natural resources and public waterways.

Take an extra bag with you next time you paddle and pack out some trash. Hopefully others will see you setting this good example.

Make sure you take a trowel for proper human waste disposal even on short trips. You never know when you’ll have to go and every time counts. Don’t make the next kayaker have to step in it.

Canoeing

Paddling a stretch of the Au Sable River in Michigan

Need up to date suggestions and reviews on equipment that can help you haul your paddling gear, food, and waste in to and out of the backcountry? Try checking out Paddle Pursuits.

Minimize Campfire Impacts

If you find an improvised fire ring (non-established) then teach those you’re traveling with why it’s so important to only use established fire circles. Depending on what land you’re using (National Park, National Forest, Wilderness Area, etc.) it can actually be illegal to create your own fire rings.

Using established fire rings keeps the destructive impact of wilderness campfire isolated in a single location. Unless you’re traveling in very remote backcountry and need a fire while you’re kayaking please stick to established rings.

Minimizing campfire impact also means completely burning any wood that you start to combust entirely to ashes and covering the ashes or disbursing them. A great rule of thumb is to burn sticks no larger than your wrist or longer than your arm.

For a few more tips on how this LNT principle applies to paddling you can check out this article.

Be Considerate of Other Visitors

This one gets overlooked so easily! For some reasons waterways tend to be one of the first destinations for rowdy and inconsiderate backcountry travelers. Bachelor parties, tubers, and other variously intoxicated paddlers seem to flock in droves to loudly make chaos and leave trash scattered about like a hurricane.

Always remember that other people are enjoying the natural resources and public lands. On waterways your voice travels quite well so keep it down.

Set up your tent and campsite well out of view from the water. Ruining visual corridors with the trendy bright neon colors used in tents and equipment right now is often overlooked. Allow others to enjoy the same undistracted view of the beautiful and wild waterways you enjoyed before setting up camp.

On the same note, respect those less considerate users of the recreational waterways but if presented the opportunity perhaps you can try to talk to them about why it’s so important to become LNT aware.

How to Teach LNT Principles

It’s important to remind people that LNT principles are guidelines and that not every situation requires the same approach. When teaching LNT I always start by asking the group to contribute their opinions about public land use and resource management. With children this is often a facilitated discussion where you’ll want to make the language digestible and appealing.

Naturally the discussion can flow into how LNT principles help us provide the framework through which to teach ethical recreational use of public and natural lands.

Check out the LNT website for LNT teaching resources and courses to become an LNT Trainer.

Take the LNT Online Awareness Workshop to see if you’re familiar with ethical backcountry travel guidelines.

Leave no trace principles are guidelines to help ensure the waterways we enjoy recreationally and professionally are kept pristine for future outdoor enthusiasts. Let’s spread the awareness!

Is Anyone Not Ready? Wilderness Trip Leading Tip

Outdoor Guide Tip of the Day

As Chris Ducker would say “no one has a monopoly on good ideas,” and that holds true among outdoor trip leaders.

Very early on in my backpacking guide career, or trip leading, as it is most often called in the industry, I stumbled across a little soft skills tip that has proven useful and I have passed on many times to new leaders.

“Is anyone not ready?”

It’s such a small little phrase but it makes a huge difference and here’s why and when to use it:

When preparing the group, as a leader, to move again be it on trail or water many new trip leaders will ask “Is everybody ready?”.

The usual response to this question is a bunch of mumbling, a few “yeses”, and maybe a really quiet and faint “no”. It can be really hard to tell who is ready and who isn’t, then you’ve got to ask again, or go through each person individually to find out who is and isn’t ready to move.

Instead simply rephrase the question: “Is anyone not ready?”

If your students respond “nope, I’m ready,” then begin to kindly remind them they need not answer unless they’re saying the affirmative. It may take a few tries before some of your students learn not to respond to the question unless they’re unprepared to move.

This alleviates confusion and allows outdoor trip leaders to know for sure, with only one question and one response, whether or not the group is ready.

The ideal response, as your group learns this question and how to answer it, is that the entire group will say nothing at all and then you know you’re ready to go.

No news is good news for a trip leader and while I encourage my trip leaders only to call back to base camp if it’s an emergency, I also encourage my participants to answer this question only if they’re unprepared to move.

What simple trip leading tips do you have for other adventure educators? Leave us a comment to start the discussion!

 

Lead and Sweep Hikers: What are Their Roles?

As I prepare the BMW for a long ride north this weekend I figured I’d get one last piece out to you all.

Let’s keep it quick and explore the roles of lead and sweep hikers for group backpacking.

lead hiker

Lead hiker’s have many tasks and you’ll want to rotate your group participants through this role. Among others their duties include:

  • Pace setting and checking for group pace
  • Checking for group hydration and ensuring water breaks
  • Initiating hiking games and group chat
  • Greeting oncoming trail traffic and alerting the group to move aside
  • Navigation
  • Getting the group ready after breaks and ensuring all are present

Any hiker in your group should be doing most of these tasks, don’t leave it solely up to your lead hiker. However, the lead hiker bears the primary responsibility for oversight.

You’ll find that as more of your group gets a chance to lead hike for a day or half a day, they’ll start to check in on the group even when they’re not in the lead. By the end of your trip you’ll have a whole group of lead hikers.

When you’re first starting out you’ll want to hike as the lead hiker and demonstrate to your group what the behaviors are of good lead hiking.

Sweep Hiker

Hiking sweep means you’re traveling very last in the group no matter what.

Normally you’ll want to make sure that you can still see your lead hiker and, if you can’t, call out for a slowing of pace. Sweep hikers are often the first to notice a pace that’s not correct.

As the sweep hiker it’s your job to mop up all the little details.

You should be:

  • Keeping an eye on pace
  • Watching the group carefully for signs of developing injury
  • Making sure no one drops gear on the trail (fuel bottles come to mind)
  • Leaving all break sites last and double checking for stragglers and trash
  • Triple checking the navigation and make sure your group hasn’t missed something
  • Keeping an eye on the weather; it’s often overlooked

When I hike sweep I try to focus on things I know my lead hiker might be too busy to notice.

As a good trip leading team, however, your job is always to predict what your co-leader needs support with and get that done before they even know it.

A great trip leading team works together always in harmony and creates a safe, meaningful environment for their group. This ensures maximum impact on students and best outcome of course goals.

Make no mistake, your students will notice when you are working as a well oiled machine with your co-leaeder and the group will strive to meet your level of excellence.

student participation and L.O.D.

Make sure you’re giving all your students a chance to rotate in to the lead and sweep hiking positions.

Usually this is done by creating a Leader of the Day structure in your adventure trips. We’ll talk about that in more detail later in another article.

Nurture your students as the learn to perform these roles and make sure you’ve already set a good example for them.

Debriefing at the end of each day with your entire group in a safe, positive learning environment, is critical to improving your LOD (leader of the day) effectiveness and smoothing out the operations of the lead and sweep hikers.

Don’t forget; it’s critical to also privately debrief the day with you LODs each day so that you and your co-leader can give them private and direct timely feedback about their performance.

Conclusion

You’ll find that your students’ ability to lead and sweep hike well is a direct result of your mentor ship and your own ability to lead and sweep hike well with your co-leader as you demonstrate and provide feedback.

If your adventure program doesn’t already have a Leader of the Day system and lead and sweep hikers in place as common practice, just contact me and we will work together to develop that content for your course.

Got great lead and sweep hiker ideas? Leave me a comment with the best games to play, common mistakes, or things you’ve learned as a lead and sweep hiker in a group!