Tag Archives: Appalachian trail

Get Rid of Your Mummy Bag on the Appalachian Trail in 2017

“Every ounce of sleeping bag crushed flat under us as we sleep is an ounce of sleeping bag we’re carrying around every day for no reason.”

Scrolling through my phone yesterday, Google recommended an Appalachian Trail Thru Hiker data article put together by Appalachian Trials (now “The Trek“). Of course this sort of thru-hiker survey data is of the utmost interest to me so I naturally began to peruse the data to see what hikers are doing these days and some of the results really did surprise me.

Okay, to be fair I almost anticipated the data to reflect more silly things than I ultimately found but (both fortunately and unfortunately) I found that thru hikers in 2016 seem to be making some seemingly dumb mistakes in ways I didn’t quite anticipate.

Why You Should Get Rid of Your Mummy Bag:


Here’s some of the data from this year’s thru hiker survey on the Appalachian Trail according to TheTrek.co.

Surprisingly enough, it shows that 25.2% of hikers are now using backpacking quilts for sleeping in tents and tarps. In hammock sleep systems, about 33% of hikers are using top-quilts for insulation.

It’s crazy to me that a full 66% of hammock campers are making the mistake of carrying extra weight and taking up extra room in the pack by choosing to use a sleeping bag instead of the much more efficient top-quilt system (in this case combined with an under quilt for hammock use).

The problem with mummy bags

So what, exactly, is the mistake here? Well, let’s start by exploring how insulation works and how sleeping bags and quilts keep us warm.

At its most basic level, the majority of insulation operates by creating “dead air space” or a pocket of air which is unable to move. This immobile air is then brought up  to body temperature since it sits close to the body. Since the air can’t move, it’s then quite efficient at helping to regulate body temperature.

For notation’s sake, it’s worth mentioning that this is only one type of insulation. See this Dr Energy Saver article for a good overall primer on how insulation works and some common problems with insulation.

Some challenges of insulation on the trail are wind, water, and compression. If your insulation gets wet it will lose a large amount of its ability to insulate. If wind is allowed to blow through your insulation it will replace all that warm air with cool (or cold) atmospheric temperature air. If your insulation gets compressed, or smashed, for any reason it will then also lose its ability to trap and retain warm body temperature air.

Wind and water are obvious, but can you think of an instance on the trail when you might accidentally compress your insulation?

Maybe you fold up that puffy jacket and sit on it for an improvised sit-pad. You might notice that it doesn’t do much to keep the bum warm. That’s because you compressed it – it’s no longer able to trap air because you crushed it flat with your body weight.

On the inefficiency of sleeping bags:

Since compressed insulation does little or nothing at all to help insulate us from cold temperatures, it follows that we should aim to avoid compressing any insulation we’re using. Right?

Backpacking Quilt vs Sleeping Bag

Quilt (left) vs Mummy Bag (right)

Traditional sleeping bags surround the body like a cocoon on all sides to keep us warm while we sleep. Unfortunately, a large portion of that insulation is crushed flat every night as we sleep. If we’re side sleepers we may crush less of that insulation than back sleepers.

Every ounce of sleeping bag crushed flat under us as we sleep is an ounce of sleeping bag we’re carrying around every day for no reason.

Because that insulation doesn’t actually help keep us warm, why bother carrying it at all? How do we solve this inefficiency?

Backpacking quilts are the answer! Backpacking quilts are simply mummy bags with open backs. There is no material on the underside of a quilt – the quilt simply drapes over you and, in some cases, snaps on to your sleeping pad to surround you without placing any material underneath you. This completely removes the material that would otherwise be crushed when sleeping in a traditional bag.

why The continued use of mummy bags surprises me:

When I first started using backpacking hammocks as a shelter back in 2011 (found Hennessey Hammocks at Trail Days in Damascus, VA) it seemed that only a select few backpackers knew about hammock camping at all. Those who did, seemed to fully understand the niche pros and cons of the shelter.

Though there seems to be little objective data available, my empirical experience is that camping hammocks have gained popularity like wildfire over the last 6 years. With them has come the rise of backpacking quilts.

UGQ Zeppelin Under Quilt

Hammock under quilt by Under Ground Quilts – my favorite manufacturer.

Quilts seem to have sprouted largely from the hammock camping community where “under quilts” are used for insulation and comfort. I only became aware of the use of backpacking quilts as a result of getting to know cottage industry manufacturers in the hammock camping industry and ultralight backpacking world.

These days it’s much more common to hear people recommend the use of backpacking quilts on forums or by word of mouth. Apparently 25% of people are now using them and their use has grown 147% YoY (year over year).

Despite their weight savings when compared to same-temperature mummy bags and the fact that high quality quilts can be custom ordered to your exact specifications for less money than many name brand mummy bags at the local outfitter, mummy bags still own the majority of the market share. Why?

Better yet – according to the survey – why are 66% of hammock users still sleeping in mummy bags? This tells me that the hammock camping fad has become so popular so quickly that people are now hammock camping while thru hiking without even using properly researched equipment… By and large hammock campers rely on under quilts for insulation, they should really know better than to be sleeping in a mummy bag.

Why are mummy bags still so popular?

Mummy bags have been around for a long time and most big-name brands are making mummy bags and have models which have been popular for decades. Chances are your grandfather had a mummy bag and your dad did, too. It’s just the “thing” you “do” when you go camping.

By and large I believe the majority of hikers, backpackers, and campers in general don’t take the time to think or research their gear in great depth. Many people aren’t even aware that there are alternatives to mummy bags.

If you’ve bought all your gear at REI, then you’re probably not even aware that backpacking quilts exist or that you can order them to literally any temperature rating you would like. You may not be aware that they’re lighter than mummy bags, built by hikers for hikers, and more compressible than any other options on the market today.

I think mummy bags are still popular because the market is so saturated with them already. Most retail stores and manufacturers aren’t really looking out for consumers best interests. After all, backpacking quilts are superior to mummy bags in every way so why does the inferior product continue to exist? Most people expect to see mummy bags when they walk into an outfitter store and that’s what the box stores are happy to sell them.

Where to buy great backpacking quilts:

I’ll recommend one backpacking quilt maker above all others because I feel their balance of price to finished product weight and attention to customer needs is superior to all others. I have exclusively used Underground Quilts owned and operated by Paul McWalters for my quilts and tarps for years.

Paul makes my gear to my exact specifications every time, even when I ask for a snap or button to be left off to save weight. His company really goes the extra mile to make some great gear and I know him personally. Check out this great interview with Paul about his quilts!

I have meticulously researched and compared quilts made by other manufacturers and none of them have the price, weight, service, and product quality that I know I can expect from UGQ and Paul. Some very few may be lighter by fractional ounces, but the difference in price does not justify the weight savings in my opinion.

I have not and do not receive compensation for my opinions nor do I make money from sales of any manufacturer’s gear. They just make great quilts.

Other Quilt Manufacturers:

If you’re looking to compare quilts then check out these other makers:


I really can’t think of a great reason to keep mummy bags around except, perhaps, in the most harsh and extreme of cold environments such as arctic exploration. For any Appalachian Trail hike, a quilt is just fine even in winter.

With that said, it is my opinion that quilts should replace mummy bags and I sincerely hope to see 75% or more of hikers carrying quilts – not the other way around as the data currently reflects. They’re lighter and more compressible saving you energy, space, and potential injury on the trail.

Go chat with my buddy Paul at Underground Quilts and get yourself hooked up with a great new piece of gear – you’ll be glad you made the change.

Do you feel that mummy bags still have a place on the trail for most people? Leave me a comment and let’s keep the discussion going!

Happy Trails, people!


What I Learned From the Appalachian Trail

This spring I started my very much anticipated would-be thru hike of the Appalachian Trail. I did not finish. This is what I learned:

  • I enjoy socializing on the trail much more than I ever have before. I sometimes found myself going out of my way to make it to a shelter where I might have an evening conversation with other hikers before turning in. It was the relationships I found out there that meant as much to me as my communion with nature. I actually returned most of the way home from the trail by getting a ride with Roy, a middle aged man with whom I had been leapfrogging for days. We met every night at the next shelter and swapped stories and advice about our struggles on the trail. He missed home. I was dragging one leg along as if on crutches. He drove me all the way to Kentucky in his beater Caprice and told me stories the whole way. He refused to let me pay him for the ride.

The first photo of my hike.

  • Hiking with an 8.5 pound base weight will attract attention. My pack was very noticeably smaller than those of any other hikers out there. Especially when unpacking for the night at or around a populated area (shelter) I was grilled with questions about my pack and gear. It’s important as a lightweight backpacker to not look down on those with heavier or different gear choices, it’s simply an opportunity to share information. I try to listen more than talk.
  • My legs are much stronger than the tendons and ligaments in them. My thru-hike was ultimately cut short by my decision to leave the trail due to increasing and consistent tendonitis on my right knee. While my muscles and mind were ready to (and did) pump out 26 mile days, the joints were not. It was, in hindsight, something I should have seen coming a long ways off. I didn’t. It took me off the trail.
  • Bleach is a totally cool water purifier. Why didn’t I start using it earlier???
  • Life teaches us new things when we embrace change and opportunities. I left the trail for a week at Hiawassee, GA to let my severely painful knee have a rest. It was there I happened across the welcoming arms of Dr. Swan and Enota Mountain Resort where I worked for stay during the Memorial Holiday. I made a dozen new friends who I will remember forever. I learned to love the early morning smell of the organic farm in Georgia. I read a book on vegan lifestyle and ate healthier there than I ever have. I had milk straight from the cow for the first time in my life. I went to bed having worked a 16 hour day and smiled about it. It was the best thing that could have happened to me.
  • I enjoyed the trail more when I let go of my schedule, ditched my itinerary, stayed and talked with whomever and whenever the whim took me. I enjoyed finding a crashed plane with Chris who continually graciously complimented my overall hiking knowledge while never ceasing to speak about the spiritual connection he felt to the forest. He started to awaken a sense of wonder in me that I so often overlook. Thanks, Chris.

Still smiling through it all.

  • Letting go of such an ingrained and heart felt goal as thru-hiking is difficult. It took me many many days to come to terms with my decision to leave the trail. Every day I lowered my mileage and pace hoping to relieve and restore the injury in my knee. When it became clear that an extended hiatus was the only foreseeable solution to my increasing knee problem I had to make peace with the decision to leave. The trail will be there next year and ten years from now. Permanent knee damage would render me useless to my two largest passions, hiking and skiing.
  • It’s important to remember that hiking the trail (and in general) should be about pleasure. If you’re not enjoying it, then you’re doing it wrong. I love the sense of having completed a difficult and high mileage day but, as I mentioned, I also found I loved the people and the experiences as much or more. It took me a while to realize it was okay to make changes to my hike in order to embrace these new experiences.

It was surprising to find out so much about myself in so short a time. From the technical challenges (and failures) I encountered to the new interpersonal relationships I experienced. Every day on my journey led to a new and welcomed discovery.

My happiness came in knowing that no matter what I was doing or how things turned out, the trail was teaching me.

Even though I didn’t even come close to achieving my initial goal I am hugely grateful for the experiences I had and the lessons I learned. I will be back to the trail soon and I will be ready to embrace every odd and whimsical opportunity that presents its self. I’ll also be hiking a little less and talking a little more.

Appalachian Trials: The Psychological and Emotional Guide to Successfully Thru-Hiking The Appalachian Trail Review


Kindle Edition

Over the last two evenings I have sat down and done a little reading on my fancy new Kindle Paperwhite.

Okay, it’s not that new but I don’t always use it regularly. I’m actually becoming more and more convinced that it’s worth its weight in my pack. Perhaps I’ll try taking it out soon?

So I’ve stumbled across the website “Appalachian Trials” a few times over the years and this book is plastered all over it. Appalachian Trials by Zach Davis. Supposedly a book about how to deal with the mental challenges of a thru hike, written by (you guessed it) another through hiker.

Within the first few pages is another surprise (kidding), it’s based on the journey of yet another zero-experience backpacker who sets out to hike the AT and pulls it off. Let me just say right here that no matter who you are, finishing the AT is awesome, so congrats to Zach.

What drew me to the book is that it’s the only real source on the mental and spiritual challenges of the AT. There is plenty of scattered info out there about overcoming the internal struggles of long distance hiking, but nothing that really drives at the point. That is, other than “Appalachian Trials”.

The second thing I noticed is that the book (at least the Kindle version) is littered with small but annoying gramatical and spelling errors. I myself make plenty of these errors in my posts but, granted, I’m not selling these posts to anyone and I most certainly don’t do multiple proofreads.

What I’m getting at is this: I paid $8 for this (rather short) book. I expect a higher level of editing for $8. I mean I picked up David Miller’s “AWOL on the Appalachian Trail” for $3, less than half the cost.

Just judging by the customer reviews (168 of them on Amazon) this dude has generated at the very least $1344 and I’d be surprised if that estimate covered even a quarter of his true revenue from the book.

If I was getting paid $1344, I’d sure as hell get those grammar and spelling errors out!

Alright, now, harshness aside, I think the book was (largely) worth my time to read. His insights on how to mentally prepare and maintain healthy mental hygiene while hiking were at least mildly valuable. Being a long time backpacker and thru-hike attempter though, most of what was covered was at least unsurprising.

To an aspiring hiker with little or no experience of what to expect on a trip of this magnitude, however, his insight and advice would be eye-opening.

Gear Advice

As I reached the end of the book I really looked forward to the section on gear written by Zach’s friend Ian Mangiardi. Being a long time gear junkie myself, I was at least curious to see what was in store from (as Zach had made it sound) this mythical guru of inexhaustible gear knowledge.

I was sorely disappointed. Let me give a few examples:

The section on stoves has this direct quote: “The best stove for me will always be a screw-on IsoButane stove. These will always be the lightest weight…”. I was slightly stunned by this comment. For those of you who are not aware, canister stoves are not the lightest weight stoves (alcohol stoves far surpass IsoButane as the lightest stoves).

Off hand his low-end canister stove weight figure was 2oz, my alcohol stove weighs .6oz. Misleading information at best, poor research or blatant disregard for facts at worst. Perhaps the section on stoves was meant to be abridged and intentionally left out any mention of lighter weight options with misleading preference given to canister stoves?

Ian Mangiardi makes a pass at the “too-good-to-be-true NeoAir”. The NeoAir pad (I can only assume he means the xLite as I believe it was the only model available at the publishing of this book) is indeed less durable than many other pads on the market. I can take a closed cell foam pad and sleep on broken glass, the pad will still function in the morning. That’s not the point, however. If you’re repeatedly breaking your NeoAir, you’re using it wrong.

I’ve used my own xLite for multiple seasons now and I have yet to have a puncture. If I had to guess, I’d say it’s been slept on for a total of ~90 nights. It was my sole sleeping pad while leading trips on the Appalachian Trail in 2013 and is still my all-time favorite. I also snagged it brand new for somewhere in the $90 range off eBay.

What many fail to recognize is that as gear gets lighter and more purpose-built, it becomes increasingly imperative to use it properly. Yes, it’s true, if you sleep on a bed of dry pine needles, you’ll pop your NeoAir. If you pitch your cuben fiber tarp next to a broken jagged branch and it gets pushed into your tarp by wind, it’s going to puncture. This is not a failure of the gear, but an oversight of the operator.

In the shelter section, Ian mentions that NEMO Equipment “will always be [his] go-to brand for quality, lightweight tents”. There’s a pretty good chance that this is because he’s sponsored by NEMO (see photo) which he fails to mention in the book.


Ian talks up his sponsors.

Perhaps, however, Ian genuinely loves NEMO and always has. Thus he became sponsored by them. It’s equally likely, however, that his sponsorship by them resulted in this shameless plug. We’ll never know (unless Ian comments or emails me).

What we do know, for sure, is that NEMO most certainly ranks very low on my list of recommended brands. I’ve never seen any products by them that are worthy of being included in my pack, let alone a section of gear-advice consumed by hundreds of will-be hikers.


Lightheart Gear’s “Lightheart Solo – Standard”

Let’s take one example, the NEMO Veda 1-P. It’s a “trekking pole tent” weighing in at 33oz retailing for $350. It has an integrated bug net and bathtub style sil-nylon floor. Now we’ll put it up against the Lightheart GearLightheart Solo – Standard” weighing in at 29oz with the same features and a $245 price tag.

That’s a $105 less for (in my opinion) a superior, lighter weight, product from a cottage manufacturer.

I have personally met the owners of Lightheart Gear and spoken to them at length about their products and their construction. I trust their gear more than I trust NEMO because I know if anything (even the smallest error) goes wrong with a Lightheart tent, they will repair or replace their work without question. Cottage industry manufacturers rock. Period.

What’s clear is that this book was not written primarily to give gear advice and Zach would have been much further ahead to leave the section out as it seems to heavily work against the reputation of his book.

Read Zach’s book “Appalachian Trials” if you can borrow it from a friend, get it on the cheap, or find it in a book stash at the back of a shelter but do everyone a favor and tear out the gear section. The book’s primary purpose and best assets lie in the mental preparation of an Appalachian Trail hike. If you can look past the poor editing, I think you’ll find content thats worth your while and valuable to an aspiring thru hiker (or avid long distance hiker).

NOTE: I did not get compensated in any way for this review by any person or company mentioned (or anyone not mentioned, for that matter).